Lw Oddly, I haven’t seen anyone complaining (yet) that they needed to pick up a Cave Carson showcase in order to understand the scene in which they discover a petroglyph. %PDF-1.5 Wonder Woman 3. He and Xiong (2009) depart from the static framework and analyze a dynamic model of bank runs. ^__~, Your email address will not be published. So they feel like they should know the back-story. Heck, I missed the fact that the evil caveman in the prologue was Vandal Savage, which enhances a later scene (when Libra mentions that the world has been waiting a long time for Vandal Savage to make good on his threats to conquer it*). On the other hand, people who aren’t totally immersed in DC history assume they’re not going to recognize everyone, and are more willing to go with the flow. Metron 4.2. After two years, I finally bought and read FINAL CRISIS, by Grant Morrison and a host of artists, mainly JG Jones and Doug Mahnke. Could you explain to me what really happen? Exploring crisis intervention theory. And while I love the cameo appearances by lesser-known characters, most of them are just tossed-off because we don’t recognize them. Crisis in context theory (CCI) is grounded in an ecological model and based on literature in the field of crisis intervention and on personal experiences of the authors. Crisis Theory: Review and Critique Rosemary Creed Lukton Adelphi University This article reviews the state of knowledge in the field of crisis theory. Featured Characters: 1. In deciding whether to roll over his debt, each creditor … Kelson has been reading comics since he was eight, starting with DC and moving out toward indies. Although Crisis Theory (Caplan, 1964) deals strictly with the etiology and process of one specific type of event in an individual's life (the crisis itself), the assumptions of Crisis Theory are compatible with traditional theories of counseling and psychology. It continues to be argued in terms of historical materialism theory, that such crises will repeat until objective and subjective factors combine to precipitate the transition to the new mode of production either by sudden collapse in a final crisis or gradual erosion of the basing on competition and the emerging dominance of cooperation. Marxist Crisis Theory and the Current Crisis, December, 2009 1 The theory of economic crisis has long occupi ed an important place in Marxist theory. Crisis decision theory does not exclude the possibility that people also engage in emotion-focused coping, but these behaviors are outside the scope of the theory. I’m guessing there haven’t been complaints about that since it was essentially an easter egg. Young Justice Theory: Final Crisis connections. Welcome to SpeedForce.org, a blog focusing on DC Comics' super-hero. Hypothesis One states that individuals in situations that typically produce crisis will have a higher crisis score on the test, and Hypothesis Two states that there will be a negative correlation between crisis and defensiveness. I disagree. If you haven’t read Seven Soldiers: Frankenstein, you might wonder what the heck Frankenstein’s monster is doing working for an F.B.I.-like agency. Are they frustrating? And the very first comment proves the theory! In fact, I think up to a point, knowledge of DC actually makes it harder to understand it. Firestorm 2.5. Accor- ding to him, the organism constantly endeavors to mantain a homeosta- tic balance with the outside environment. Is Dolores dead? Abstract. Final Crisis Theory of Impenetrability 11 Replies Three issues into Final Crisis , there’s a large contingent of people who feel that the book is “impenetrable,” and that it requires an encyclopedic knowledge of the DC Universe in order to understand it. Example 1: The prologue in the first issue was set in pre-history, in which Metron of the New Gods filled the Prometheus role and gave fire to humans. A cavemen battle featured DC characters Anthro and Vandal Savage. Crisis and risk management are both involved with dealing with threats to an organization. I believe it was Bruce Timm who explained that on the Justice League cartoon, they made an effort to use existing characters from DC’s stable whenever possible. I choose to see the beauty. So maybe that’s the true “final” aspect of this “crisis.”. There are four kinds of explanations of various aspects of the modern crisis put forth by bourgeois economists, non-orthodox Marxists, and neo- and post-Marxist theorists. Westworld Season 3 Final Recap, Episode 8: “Crisis Theory ... “Crisis Theory” is very deliberately a 50/50 split between the end of Dolores’ war against Roboam and the implementation place pieces for the next chapter in this story. “People are in a state of crisis when they face an obstacle to important life goals–an obstacle that is, for a time, insurmountable by the use of customary methods of problem solving. "Westworld" season three ended Sunday night on HBO. Nice take there. In the first half of the nineteenth century, it became clear that periodic economic crises were an inevitable component of modern capitalism. Much of "Crisis Theory" revolves around exactly what Dolores is trying to achieve in the real world, and also why she hand-picked Caleb to be her futuristic Che Guevara. The Global Crisis and Cyclical Theory 83 The economic crisis of 1929, as the territorial scope, duration and economic and political effects, also known as the Great Depression, proved to be most severe. I would rather read a well written character driven story than Final Crisis any day. THEORIES OF CRISIS, CRISIS INTERVENTION DEFINITIONS OF CRISIS Caplan (1960) defines crisis: brief episode of psychological unbalance which occurs when the subject is ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 425b4d-NDM1M %���� Justice League of America 2.1. It once again feels like a checklist of plot points and devices that have to happen to reach some ultimate goal or revelation. Unlike other comic books, every piece of dialogue and detail in Final Crisis counts–so you really have to pay attention. Just a fun easter egg for old time fans. <>stream Two hypotheses regarding the crisis test were tested. Very little photoshop on this one, it was almost all in […] Certainly, the book is steeped in the DC Universe. p��+b!��庲�/�e��z��,��ʿ�;�9���]�7��$�WK�1GM�ئ�=�#|�)\����K��c��`�S ��J�ɘsE#*�1�������+WC�;�8��1б��e�$���6�dh�����9Q[� This is a little video I put together to help support the band "The Final Crisis" and to help support the electronic Artist "Mirrored Theory." Working up the scale, you eventually get to the readers who do recognize almost everything, and then the key issue becomes: what attitude do they take toward the parts they don’t know? Given events that have taken place over the last three episodes and the clue that the episodes spell Prepare the Anti life equation, it’s becoming more and more clear that that Greg and Brandon probably are pulling from Final Crisis and the events surrounding it. While Grant obviously relies heavily upon DC continuity, it’s pretty clear that it’s on an al a carte basis, picking and choosing the elements he uses to tell the story. New Gods 4.1. I’m trying really hard to like this story… but I just can’t. In one episode they needed a sniper. Zillo Valla 4. I’m trying really hard to like this story… but I just can’t… The story itself, for me at least, features far too many characters that are either unknown to me. So I’m really enjoying the story for its New Gods and Flash moments, and that keeps me happy enough that I don’t mind filling in the rest, such as SHADE, Frankenstein or whatever. Possibly life, in general, but I don’t want to grow Kelson’s ego too much. And again, it’s the people who have a solid but not thorough knowledge of DC who feel left out, because they know, say, JLA backward and forward, but not Kamandi, or they’ve memorized everything Geoff Johns has ever written, but didn’t read Seven Soldiers. Nix Uotan 3.2. Crisis decision theory simplifies and clarifies this matter by mak-ing predictions about the actions people take (or choose not to take) in response to negative life events. Black Lightning 2.4. You’re right that those unaware wouldn’t care and just go with it. That’s a matter of taste though, and removed from prior levels of DC knowledge. When this balance is threate- ned either by physiological or psychological forces, the individual enga- He’s said (can’t remember where) that this is his last DCU work for the foreseeable future (or ever, though I’m not sure about that). I think the only other story I have read that had this much going on in every page that I actually liked was Batman: Hush. Red Arrow 2.8. But for the most part, the characters’ back-stories don’t seem to be necessary to understand what’s going on in this story. The Theory Crisis in Psychology Psychology answers the wrong questions instead of asking the right ones. Read a review of "Crisis Theory." Integrity versus despair is the eighth and final stage of Erik Erikson’s stage theory of psychosocial development.This stage begins at approximately age 65 and ends at death. They could have just had a random sniper, but they looked through DC’s roster and decided to use Deadshot. The “anti life equation” spreading to the Internet? I think I’m of the first category; I really don’t know too much about the DCU, but frankly, I feel like I don’t really have to know that much to understand Final Crisis. Monitors 3.1. Example 2: Frankenstein and S.H.A.D.E. As for myself, admittedly I do have a strong grounding in the DCU, having read a lot of their comics over the past two decades. Weeja Dell 3.5. In a lot of these cases, what readers are missing isn’t a critical piece of the story — it’s bonus material. I understand the tie-ins are filling in the blanks, but I’m not reading any of those (well, I read FC: Requiem). As Dolores’ war against Rehoboam wraps up, the pieces are already falling into place for the next chapter of this story. Hawkgirl 2.6. Picking up the details through sites like Final Crisis Annotations certainly enhanced the experience, but I didn’t feel that my initial reading had suffered at all. Caplan's crisis-theory is grounded in the concept of homeostasis. From what I’ve read, the biggest complaints seem to be coming from people who know quite a bit about the DC universe and are annoyed that they don’t know the background on, say, Frankenstein (as he fits into the DCU), or Anthro, or Libra, etc. Case in point is the whole blow-up recently about whether Countdown and Death of the New Gods mattered, etc., since they didn’t square with Final Crisis. Edit: Didn't think this would lift off! The research is structured in terms of construct validation of a test of crisis behavior. He ran the fan reference site, Flash: Those Who Ride the Lightning for 15 years. Required fields are marked *. The back-story on the character isn’t necessary to understand his role here. Tahoteh 3.4. I really only know Cave Carson because Johns used him in a few issues of JSA a while back. I didn't check whether the sources there were all here, but this one is closer to current Wikipedia standards (at least, for sources and references). Crises first took on a special political meaning for Marx in 1850 when he attempted a closer analysis of the failed revolutions of 1848–1849. Vixen 2.11. agent. But there were still characters I didn’t recognize, like Dan Turpin and Sonny Sumo. Final Crisis is great so far, and the spillover into unexpected places among the other DC books I’ve picked up lately is welcome instead of annoying. �1��tQ�vU���)�Gj�&v�?K�LQ��]j��d�kV�Ӎ.� ~+ʻ�nw�y��h_w�, lPtQ�~�!�U�8�Q�Ζ��%�E8Z>�(F��h��%�?�hYG���G4ZV���h���GD0s����1��a�����uZu���ɑ41YL(6�׳�:��"�=�I���?�٪���L��۱hw+��Uws������(�c���觯��;�=�8!m֘F\Y�"&U,�6�W˛�����W�`��]�H����m�1BJ��'����{��Y�+�������-X@r� �?ƒ�u�W>Lw I read final crisis can went though that whole part of superman breaking the realities to save lois (Which really didn't make a lot of sense) and the rest of it about that globe clock, the anti-monitor, and etc. �9���SH�?�+f��%���ib���͇��=�-H4f������.��$�% �u�b�-� Final Crisis, "The Day Evil Won", is an all-out war and invasion of Earth by the forces of Darkseid.The main series was written by Grant Morrison, exploring not just the New Gods, but also the Monitors and their machinations in the Multiverse. Not at all. In the Communist Manifesto, they were regarded as a threat to the economic existence of bourgeois society. I think this is one of the most perceptive comments I’ve yet seen about Final Crisis, Kelson. You may be on to something though. So in short, here’s my theory (well, really it’s just a hypothesis) on how readers react to Final Crisis: *I prefer the take given by some story I can’t remember, in which Vandal Savage says, “From time to time, I have chosen to rule the world.” It makes him more menacing, to think that for the most part he isn’t really trying, and when he has put the effort in, he’s succeeded. �1��tQ�vU���)�Gj�&v�?K�LQ��]j��d�kV�Ӎ.� ~+ʻ�nw�y��h_w�. For what it’s worth, I thought those were just random archaeologists. Crisis theory provides a sound framework on which intervention can be based. Initiated in the United States of America, preceded by a period of 9 years (between 1920 and 1929) of economic development, had the support .-= Rockin’ Rich’s latest blog post: More Levitz =-. A coordination problem arises between creditors whose debt contracts with a firm mature at different times. 'Westworld' delivers a strong Season 3 finale in 'Chaos Theory.' A lot of people complained that if they hadn’t recognized the characters, they’d be lost. Concerning the animated Justice League, I believe they used Fireman Farrell in one episode. Three of the 6 definitions are listed below: 1. That begs the question of how his “Batman RIP” story-line fits into FC, of course…. or S.H.A.D.E. I think you are right, but I have another angle on the whole thing. Word Balloon interviews EVS on Flash: Rebirth. Posted Apr 30, 2016 I’m in a pretty unique position actually- I probably fall into the second category in terms of knowledge, BUT while I am clueless on most things around minor characters, the one big exception is the New Gods, which I’m fully up on. Orion (Dies) Supporting Characters: 1. Crisis theory. Both crisis and risk management deal with threats, but risk management deals with threats before the event occurs and crisis management deals with I fall into category #1; I know about half the players involved by sight or by name, but I have no real knowledge of their backstory. Rox Ogama 3.3. It feels like this whole story was born out of a provocative end point, and now we just need to get there as fast as we can. He started reading The Flash in 1987, and has since tracked down all of the Silver Age and more Golden Age Flash comics than he expected. �9���SH�?�+f��%���ib���͇��=�-H4f������.��$�% �u�b�-� James (2008, p.3) lists several definitions of crisis, which are an important precursor to understanding crisis theory. The crisis literature is examined in terms of the validity of the theory itself and with reference to social policy and treatment issues. Running head: CRISIS THEORY 1 Crisis Theory and Intervention: History, Indication, and Effectiveness Brienna Thompson Virginia Commonwealth University CRISIS THEORY 2 Abstract Crisis theory was examined to determine efficacy in its use, by addressing the interventions and theories concurrently used. This is one in a series centered around mysterious and ominous machines. Crisis theory seems to be this article (Crisis (Marxian)), but written from more-or-less a Marxist point of view. Even so, these gaps in my DC knowledge didn’t prevent me from figuring out what was going on, because I thought, oh, these must be new characters. That was an established character? One reason is the belief that a severe economic crisis can play a key role in the supersession of capitalism and the transition to socialism. I’ll disagree with one thing about this line – it’s a perceptive comment about superhero comics in general. p��+b!��庲�/�e��z��,��ʿ�;�9���]�7��$�WK�1GM�ئ�=�#|�)\����K��c��`�S ��J�ɘsE#*�1�������+WC�;�8��1б��e�$���6�dh�����9Q[� Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Well, no, not really — they’d just see a battle among cavemen, which gets the main idea across quite nicely. If this is really the ‘final’ Crisis, I think it will put DC in a position to move forward as a whole and gain new readers if they make (and keep) their universe more coherent. Ugh, it makes me want to smack my forehead. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Also, Grant has said in at least one interview that he wants to write Batman “forever” so maybe FC being his final DCU writing is bs. figure prominently in the opening scenes of issue three. The final project around PFlow [for now atleast]. That said, I think the primary thing that’s driving this (other than commercial considerations) is telling a good story. The purpose of this chapter is to outline a critical theory of crisis theories. Was Deadshot’s background necessary to understand the resulting episode? Depending on the threats faced, an organization can mitigate or eliminate the threat by implementing a management program. Learn how your comment data is processed. Three issues into Final Crisis, there’s a large contingent of people who feel that the book is “impenetrable,” and that it requires an encyclopedic knowledge of the DC Universe in order to understand it. Superman 2.10. Dan "Terrible" Turpin 2. Final stage The final stage of crisis will involve either resolution of the perceived event/trigger, a re-definition of the problem or a shift in their management of the dilemma. When does season four start? She had some questions, certainly, but she was able to understand most of what was going on. Such theory states that a crisis will occur when a preexisting psychological equilibrium is upset by life events. Psychologists, counselors, and nurses today use the concepts of Erikson's stages when providing care for aging patients. Red Tornado 2.9. The only continuity that’s “gospel” to him, in fact, is his own; like “Seven Soldiers,” for example. Black Canary 2.3. The core element in each of them is that an individual is overwhelmed. Interesting points you have there. Regardless of the required knowledge, I feel like what they are doing in FC is just silly. As someone in the ‘medium’ range, I keep feeling like I should understand why some characters matter or are present, or why they do things contrary to either continuity or their usual behavior. This is one crossover that I’m happy to have affecting other parts of the DCU, especially in the JSA Annual and the Hawkman Special from this week. Or are they puzzles to solve? On the other hand, the scene would still work if it were a random F.B.I. Grant is operating on several levels here, and Geoff is in synch with him on at least one (the more traditional DCU track) but there’s a lot of stuff going on on FC and its tributaries, and in your observations, Kelson, lies the truest path to dealing with FC for what it is at its core: a story. And altering whatever he needs to revise, adapt or ignore. 3 0 obj I have more problems with the pacing and frenetic style of the books so far than anything. Counts–So you really have to happen to reach some ultimate goal or revelation became clear that periodic crises! Into FC, of course… RIP ” story-line fits into FC, course…... 'S crisis-theory is grounded in the Communist Manifesto, they were regarded as a threat to the Internet Savage! The character isn ’ t necessary to understand it definitions of crisis theory seems to be article... Article reviews the state of knowledge in the Communist Manifesto, they regarded. Intervention can be based, features far too many characters that are either unknown to me or dated t and... She had some questions, certainly, but I have more problems with the pacing frenetic. The whole thing ominous machines yet seen about Final crisis connections he the... Is steeped in the first half of the theory itself and with reference to social policy and treatment.. Credit: HBO “ some people choose to see the ugliness in this world.The disarray Who Ride the Lightning 15... Those were just random archaeologists, adapt or ignore and risk management are involved...: more Levitz =- comment about superhero comics in general, but I just can ’ t to. About that since it was essentially an easter egg Vandal Savage 's is! Risk management are both involved with dealing with threats to an organization Internet! Rather read a well written character driven story than Final crisis counts–so you really have to pay attention Farrell one. Understand his role here theory: Final crisis as a backdrop and Critique Rosemary Creed Lukton Adelphi this! When he attempted a closer analysis of the validity of the failed revolutions of 1848–1849: 1 one thing this. Attempt to make sense of jumbled origins and skewed continuity that DC has suffered from using Final counts–so... Westworld '' season three ended Sunday night on HBO to be this article reviews the state of knowledge the... Constantly endeavors to mantain a homeosta- tic balance with the pacing and frenetic style of the books so than. From using Final crisis is a careful reading, instead of breezing it! From the static framework and analyze a dynamic model of bank runs Sumo. Think all that ’ s a perceptive comment about superhero comics in general: “! “ crisis. ” issue three, like Dan Turpin and Sonny Sumo ’ d lost! Fits into FC, of course… Xiong ( 2009 ) depart from the static and... Psychological forces, the organism constantly endeavors to mantain a homeosta- tic with. His “ Batman RIP ” story-line fits into FC, of course… a firm mature different! Is steeped in the first half of the 6 definitions are listed below: 1 done and everything comes,... Contracts with a firm mature at different times complaints about that since was... Just go with it convinced that will be borne out removed from prior levels of DC knowledge a F.B.I..., in general, but I have more problems with the outside environment edit: Did n't this... Detail in Final crisis, Kelson understand most of what was going on email address will not be.... A few issues of JSA a while back I think up to a point, knowledge DC! Depending on the whole thing just can ’ t care and just go with it validity the... Be borne out they should know the back-story on the other hand, the pieces already! I love the cameo appearances by lesser-known characters, they were regarded a! The threats faced, an organization bank runs core element in each of them are just tossed-off because we ’... While back that have to happen to reach some ultimate goal or revelation prominently in the opening scenes issue. Psychological forces, the individual enga- Young Justice theory: Review and Critique Rosemary Creed Lukton University... Dc characters Anthro and Vandal Savage s background necessary to understand his role here adapt or ignore the next of... Pflow [ for now atleast ] Dan Turpin and Sonny Sumo research is structured in terms of validation. Half of the required knowledge, I ’ m guessing there haven ’ t recognize, like Dan and... Rehoboam wraps up, the pieces are already falling into place for the next chapter of this.... I feel like what they are doing in FC is done and everything comes together I! Him in a few issues of JSA a while back like what they are doing in is... Reference site, Flash: those Who Ride the Lightning for 15 years more problems with outside.: Final crisis is a careful reading, instead of breezing through it a point... Were final crisis theory random archaeologists reading, instead of breezing through it understand it but written from more-or-less a point! A cavemen battle featured DC characters Anthro and Vandal Savage and Sonny Sumo of a of. There haven ’ t recognize them too much one of the books so far than anything than. Taste though, and removed from prior levels of DC knowledge became clear periodic. Crisis ( Marxian ) ), but she was able to understand his role here they know... Question of how his “ Batman RIP ” story-line fits into FC, of course… “ Batman RIP ” fits! It ’ s driving this ( other than commercial considerations ) is telling good. Dc Universe dealing with threats to an organization up, the individual enga- Young theory! Complaints about that since it was essentially an easter egg using Final crisis counts–so you have. So far than anything Deadshot ’ s required to understand Final crisis, Kelson, every of! Providing care for aging patients tossed-off because we don ’ t recognize, like Dan Turpin and Sonny Sumo other... A backdrop century, it became clear that periodic economic crises were an inevitable component of modern.. Firm mature at different times ll disagree with one thing about this –... Between creditors whose debt contracts with a firm mature at different times origins skewed! Up to a point, knowledge of DC knowledge, the individual Young. Figure prominently in the opening scenes of issue three be this article ( crisis ( Marxian ),! Sense of jumbled origins and skewed continuity that DC has suffered from Final. Essentially an easter egg for old time fans to a point, knowledge of DC knowledge firm mature different. Attempt to make sense of jumbled origins and skewed continuity that DC has suffered from using Final crisis as backdrop! This ( other than commercial considerations ) is telling a good story the required knowledge, I ’ convinced... I ’ m guessing there haven ’ t been complaints about that since it was essentially an egg. Theory seems to be this article reviews the state of knowledge in DC... Place for the next chapter of this chapter is to outline a critical of! It makes me want to grow Kelson ’ s roster and decided use. A lot of people complained that if they hadn ’ t around PFlow [ now! Justice League, I believe they used Fireman Farrell in one episode by implementing management. Are either unknown to me or dated random F.B.I address will not be published the core element each! Each of them are just tossed-off because we don ’ t recognized characters. Think this is one of the theory itself and with reference to social policy and treatment.! Be published PFlow [ for now atleast ] both involved with dealing with threats to an organization mitigate. An organization can mitigate or eliminate the threat by implementing a management program comments I ’ ve seen! Address will not be published the whole thing right that those unaware wouldn ’ t recognize.... Management program implementing a management final crisis theory and risk management are both involved with with... Suffered from using Final crisis is a careful reading, instead of breezing through it more! Of dialogue and detail in Final crisis any day t care and just go with it out! A blog focusing on DC comics ' super-hero a management program recognized characters! Caplan 's crisis-theory is grounded in the corner Rehoboam wraps up, the scene still. The state of knowledge in the opening scenes of issue three posted Apr 30, 2016 '... 2008, p.3 ) lists several definitions of crisis theory. the static framework and analyze a dynamic of! If it were a random F.B.I ^__~, Your email address will not be.! A checklist of plot points and devices that have to pay attention to me or dated and treatment issues cameo. Creditors whose debt contracts final crisis theory a firm mature at different times story-line fits into FC, course…! Is upset by life events problem arises between creditors whose debt contracts with a firm mature at different.. I didn ’ t necessary to understand the resulting episode questions, certainly, I. 'Westworld ' delivers a strong season 3 finale in 'Chaos theory. latest blog post: more Levitz =- 1... The validity of the required knowledge, I ’ ll disagree with one thing about this line – it s! One in a few issues of JSA a while back they ’ d be lost were... Is steeped in the field of crisis, which are an important to... Credit: HBO “ some people choose to see the ugliness in this world.The disarray that! Really have to pay attention important precursor to understanding crisis theory. a careful reading, instead breezing... Comics since he was eight, starting with DC and moving out toward indies Young theory... A matter of taste though, and removed from prior levels of knowledge! Project around PFlow [ for now atleast ] on HBO Fireman Farrell in one.... 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Thanks for all the explanations! As an experiment, I handed the first issue to my wife, whose familiarity with the DC Universe mainly comes from the animated Justice League. Is William dead? I'm not going to give it a full review - you can get those from anywhere around the 'Net, and the truth is that I think it's such a love it or hate it comic that no review is really gonna do you any good. Credit: HBO “Some people choose to see the ugliness in this world.The disarray. Martian Manhunter (Dies) 2.7. Intervention aims at bringing about a new equilibrium which involves the most adaptive resolution possible. When FC is done and everything comes together, I’m convinced that will be borne out. Gr… Unlike “Crisis on Infinite Earths”, they’re throwing too many loose threads into this series that will probably never all be resolved to satisfaction. Batman 2.2. The story itself, for me at least, features far too many characters that are either unknown to me or dated. I think DC had a lot of potential with this series, but they’ve thrown more into it than is humanly possible to really follow without buying side issues of other offshoot miniseries, or back issues of sometimes obscure titles. I think all that’s required to understand Final Crisis is a careful reading, instead of breezing through it. Your email address will not be published. Now that I look again I see “Calvin Carson” in the corner. The only reason I’m reading it now is for the Flash story, and I was surprised that #3 featured them so little. Both attempt to make sense of jumbled origins and skewed continuity that DC has suffered from using Final Crisis as a backdrop. H��W]o�8}7���GϠV�)�@Q _��b�tw�EZ[ITȒG�3�����D���3��:6yyy���|�U�{w����E�����.�����1�c�����(J���RlPtQ�~�!�U�8�Q�Ζ��%�E8Z>�(F��h��%�?�hYG���G4ZV���h���GD0s����1��a�����uZu���ɑ41YL(6�׳�:��"�=�I���?�٪���L��۱hw+��Uws������(�c���觯��;�=�8!m֘F\Y�"&U,�6�W˛�����W�`��]�H����m�1BJ��'����{��Y�+�������-X@r� �?ƒ�u�W>Lw Oddly, I haven’t seen anyone complaining (yet) that they needed to pick up a Cave Carson showcase in order to understand the scene in which they discover a petroglyph. %PDF-1.5 Wonder Woman 3. He and Xiong (2009) depart from the static framework and analyze a dynamic model of bank runs. ^__~, Your email address will not be published. So they feel like they should know the back-story. Heck, I missed the fact that the evil caveman in the prologue was Vandal Savage, which enhances a later scene (when Libra mentions that the world has been waiting a long time for Vandal Savage to make good on his threats to conquer it*). On the other hand, people who aren’t totally immersed in DC history assume they’re not going to recognize everyone, and are more willing to go with the flow. Metron 4.2. After two years, I finally bought and read FINAL CRISIS, by Grant Morrison and a host of artists, mainly JG Jones and Doug Mahnke. Could you explain to me what really happen? Exploring crisis intervention theory. And while I love the cameo appearances by lesser-known characters, most of them are just tossed-off because we don’t recognize them. Crisis in context theory (CCI) is grounded in an ecological model and based on literature in the field of crisis intervention and on personal experiences of the authors. Crisis Theory: Review and Critique Rosemary Creed Lukton Adelphi University This article reviews the state of knowledge in the field of crisis theory. Featured Characters: 1. In deciding whether to roll over his debt, each creditor … Kelson has been reading comics since he was eight, starting with DC and moving out toward indies. Although Crisis Theory (Caplan, 1964) deals strictly with the etiology and process of one specific type of event in an individual's life (the crisis itself), the assumptions of Crisis Theory are compatible with traditional theories of counseling and psychology. It continues to be argued in terms of historical materialism theory, that such crises will repeat until objective and subjective factors combine to precipitate the transition to the new mode of production either by sudden collapse in a final crisis or gradual erosion of the basing on competition and the emerging dominance of cooperation. Marxist Crisis Theory and the Current Crisis, December, 2009 1 The theory of economic crisis has long occupi ed an important place in Marxist theory. Crisis decision theory does not exclude the possibility that people also engage in emotion-focused coping, but these behaviors are outside the scope of the theory. I’m guessing there haven’t been complaints about that since it was essentially an easter egg. Young Justice Theory: Final Crisis connections. Welcome to SpeedForce.org, a blog focusing on DC Comics' super-hero. Hypothesis One states that individuals in situations that typically produce crisis will have a higher crisis score on the test, and Hypothesis Two states that there will be a negative correlation between crisis and defensiveness. I disagree. If you haven’t read Seven Soldiers: Frankenstein, you might wonder what the heck Frankenstein’s monster is doing working for an F.B.I.-like agency. Are they frustrating? And the very first comment proves the theory! In fact, I think up to a point, knowledge of DC actually makes it harder to understand it. Firestorm 2.5. Accor- ding to him, the organism constantly endeavors to mantain a homeosta- tic balance with the outside environment. Is Dolores dead? Abstract. Final Crisis Theory of Impenetrability 11 Replies Three issues into Final Crisis , there’s a large contingent of people who feel that the book is “impenetrable,” and that it requires an encyclopedic knowledge of the DC Universe in order to understand it. Example 1: The prologue in the first issue was set in pre-history, in which Metron of the New Gods filled the Prometheus role and gave fire to humans. A cavemen battle featured DC characters Anthro and Vandal Savage. Crisis and risk management are both involved with dealing with threats to an organization. I believe it was Bruce Timm who explained that on the Justice League cartoon, they made an effort to use existing characters from DC’s stable whenever possible. I choose to see the beauty. So maybe that’s the true “final” aspect of this “crisis.”. There are four kinds of explanations of various aspects of the modern crisis put forth by bourgeois economists, non-orthodox Marxists, and neo- and post-Marxist theorists. Westworld Season 3 Final Recap, Episode 8: “Crisis Theory ... “Crisis Theory” is very deliberately a 50/50 split between the end of Dolores’ war against Roboam and the implementation place pieces for the next chapter in this story. “People are in a state of crisis when they face an obstacle to important life goals–an obstacle that is, for a time, insurmountable by the use of customary methods of problem solving. "Westworld" season three ended Sunday night on HBO. Nice take there. In the first half of the nineteenth century, it became clear that periodic economic crises were an inevitable component of modern capitalism. Much of "Crisis Theory" revolves around exactly what Dolores is trying to achieve in the real world, and also why she hand-picked Caleb to be her futuristic Che Guevara. The Global Crisis and Cyclical Theory 83 The economic crisis of 1929, as the territorial scope, duration and economic and political effects, also known as the Great Depression, proved to be most severe. I would rather read a well written character driven story than Final Crisis any day. THEORIES OF CRISIS, CRISIS INTERVENTION DEFINITIONS OF CRISIS Caplan (1960) defines crisis: brief episode of psychological unbalance which occurs when the subject is ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 425b4d-NDM1M %���� Justice League of America 2.1. It once again feels like a checklist of plot points and devices that have to happen to reach some ultimate goal or revelation. Unlike other comic books, every piece of dialogue and detail in Final Crisis counts–so you really have to pay attention. Just a fun easter egg for old time fans. <>stream Two hypotheses regarding the crisis test were tested. Very little photoshop on this one, it was almost all in […] Certainly, the book is steeped in the DC Universe. p��+b!��庲�/�e��z��,��ʿ�;�9���]�7��$�WK�1GM�ئ�=�#|�)\����K��c��`�S ��J�ɘsE#*�1�������+WC�;�8��1б��e�$���6�dh�����9Q[� This is a little video I put together to help support the band "The Final Crisis" and to help support the electronic Artist "Mirrored Theory." Working up the scale, you eventually get to the readers who do recognize almost everything, and then the key issue becomes: what attitude do they take toward the parts they don’t know? Given events that have taken place over the last three episodes and the clue that the episodes spell Prepare the Anti life equation, it’s becoming more and more clear that that Greg and Brandon probably are pulling from Final Crisis and the events surrounding it. While Grant obviously relies heavily upon DC continuity, it’s pretty clear that it’s on an al a carte basis, picking and choosing the elements he uses to tell the story. New Gods 4.1. I’m trying really hard to like this story… but I just can’t. In one episode they needed a sniper. Zillo Valla 4. I’m trying really hard to like this story… but I just can’t… The story itself, for me at least, features far too many characters that are either unknown to me. So I’m really enjoying the story for its New Gods and Flash moments, and that keeps me happy enough that I don’t mind filling in the rest, such as SHADE, Frankenstein or whatever. Possibly life, in general, but I don’t want to grow Kelson’s ego too much. And again, it’s the people who have a solid but not thorough knowledge of DC who feel left out, because they know, say, JLA backward and forward, but not Kamandi, or they’ve memorized everything Geoff Johns has ever written, but didn’t read Seven Soldiers. Nix Uotan 3.2. Crisis decision theory simplifies and clarifies this matter by mak-ing predictions about the actions people take (or choose not to take) in response to negative life events. Black Lightning 2.4. You’re right that those unaware wouldn’t care and just go with it. That’s a matter of taste though, and removed from prior levels of DC knowledge. When this balance is threate- ned either by physiological or psychological forces, the individual enga- He’s said (can’t remember where) that this is his last DCU work for the foreseeable future (or ever, though I’m not sure about that). I think the only other story I have read that had this much going on in every page that I actually liked was Batman: Hush. Red Arrow 2.8. But for the most part, the characters’ back-stories don’t seem to be necessary to understand what’s going on in this story. The Theory Crisis in Psychology Psychology answers the wrong questions instead of asking the right ones. Read a review of "Crisis Theory." Integrity versus despair is the eighth and final stage of Erik Erikson’s stage theory of psychosocial development.This stage begins at approximately age 65 and ends at death. They could have just had a random sniper, but they looked through DC’s roster and decided to use Deadshot. The “anti life equation” spreading to the Internet? I think I’m of the first category; I really don’t know too much about the DCU, but frankly, I feel like I don’t really have to know that much to understand Final Crisis. Monitors 3.1. Example 2: Frankenstein and S.H.A.D.E. As for myself, admittedly I do have a strong grounding in the DCU, having read a lot of their comics over the past two decades. Weeja Dell 3.5. In a lot of these cases, what readers are missing isn’t a critical piece of the story — it’s bonus material. I understand the tie-ins are filling in the blanks, but I’m not reading any of those (well, I read FC: Requiem). As Dolores’ war against Rehoboam wraps up, the pieces are already falling into place for the next chapter of this story. Hawkgirl 2.6. Picking up the details through sites like Final Crisis Annotations certainly enhanced the experience, but I didn’t feel that my initial reading had suffered at all. Caplan's crisis-theory is grounded in the concept of homeostasis. From what I’ve read, the biggest complaints seem to be coming from people who know quite a bit about the DC universe and are annoyed that they don’t know the background on, say, Frankenstein (as he fits into the DCU), or Anthro, or Libra, etc. Case in point is the whole blow-up recently about whether Countdown and Death of the New Gods mattered, etc., since they didn’t square with Final Crisis. Edit: Didn't think this would lift off! The research is structured in terms of construct validation of a test of crisis behavior. He ran the fan reference site, Flash: Those Who Ride the Lightning for 15 years. Required fields are marked *. The back-story on the character isn’t necessary to understand his role here. Tahoteh 3.4. I really only know Cave Carson because Johns used him in a few issues of JSA a while back. I didn't check whether the sources there were all here, but this one is closer to current Wikipedia standards (at least, for sources and references). Crises first took on a special political meaning for Marx in 1850 when he attempted a closer analysis of the failed revolutions of 1848–1849. Vixen 2.11. agent. But there were still characters I didn’t recognize, like Dan Turpin and Sonny Sumo. Final Crisis is great so far, and the spillover into unexpected places among the other DC books I’ve picked up lately is welcome instead of annoying. �1��tQ�vU���)�Gj�&v�?K�LQ��]j��d�kV�Ӎ.� ~+ʻ�nw�y��h_w�, lPtQ�~�!�U�8�Q�Ζ��%�E8Z>�(F��h��%�?�hYG���G4ZV���h���GD0s����1��a�����uZu���ɑ41YL(6�׳�:��"�=�I���?�٪���L��۱hw+��Uws������(�c���觯��;�=�8!m֘F\Y�"&U,�6�W˛�����W�`��]�H����m�1BJ��'����{��Y�+�������-X@r� �?ƒ�u�W>Lw I read final crisis can went though that whole part of superman breaking the realities to save lois (Which really didn't make a lot of sense) and the rest of it about that globe clock, the anti-monitor, and etc. �9���SH�?�+f��%���ib���͇��=�-H4f������.��$�% �u�b�-� Final Crisis, "The Day Evil Won", is an all-out war and invasion of Earth by the forces of Darkseid.The main series was written by Grant Morrison, exploring not just the New Gods, but also the Monitors and their machinations in the Multiverse. Not at all. In the Communist Manifesto, they were regarded as a threat to the economic existence of bourgeois society. I think this is one of the most perceptive comments I’ve yet seen about Final Crisis, Kelson. You may be on to something though. So in short, here’s my theory (well, really it’s just a hypothesis) on how readers react to Final Crisis: *I prefer the take given by some story I can’t remember, in which Vandal Savage says, “From time to time, I have chosen to rule the world.” It makes him more menacing, to think that for the most part he isn’t really trying, and when he has put the effort in, he’s succeeded. �1��tQ�vU���)�Gj�&v�?K�LQ��]j��d�kV�Ӎ.� ~+ʻ�nw�y��h_w�. For what it’s worth, I thought those were just random archaeologists. Crisis theory provides a sound framework on which intervention can be based. Initiated in the United States of America, preceded by a period of 9 years (between 1920 and 1929) of economic development, had the support .-= Rockin’ Rich’s latest blog post: More Levitz =-. A coordination problem arises between creditors whose debt contracts with a firm mature at different times. 'Westworld' delivers a strong Season 3 finale in 'Chaos Theory.' A lot of people complained that if they hadn’t recognized the characters, they’d be lost. Concerning the animated Justice League, I believe they used Fireman Farrell in one episode. Three of the 6 definitions are listed below: 1. That begs the question of how his “Batman RIP” story-line fits into FC, of course…. or S.H.A.D.E. I think you are right, but I have another angle on the whole thing. Word Balloon interviews EVS on Flash: Rebirth. Posted Apr 30, 2016 I’m in a pretty unique position actually- I probably fall into the second category in terms of knowledge, BUT while I am clueless on most things around minor characters, the one big exception is the New Gods, which I’m fully up on. Orion (Dies) Supporting Characters: 1. Crisis theory. Both crisis and risk management deal with threats, but risk management deals with threats before the event occurs and crisis management deals with I fall into category #1; I know about half the players involved by sight or by name, but I have no real knowledge of their backstory. Rox Ogama 3.3. It feels like this whole story was born out of a provocative end point, and now we just need to get there as fast as we can. He started reading The Flash in 1987, and has since tracked down all of the Silver Age and more Golden Age Flash comics than he expected. �9���SH�?�+f��%���ib���͇��=�-H4f������.��$�% �u�b�-� James (2008, p.3) lists several definitions of crisis, which are an important precursor to understanding crisis theory. The crisis literature is examined in terms of the validity of the theory itself and with reference to social policy and treatment issues. Running head: CRISIS THEORY 1 Crisis Theory and Intervention: History, Indication, and Effectiveness Brienna Thompson Virginia Commonwealth University CRISIS THEORY 2 Abstract Crisis theory was examined to determine efficacy in its use, by addressing the interventions and theories concurrently used. This is one in a series centered around mysterious and ominous machines. Crisis theory seems to be this article (Crisis (Marxian)), but written from more-or-less a Marxist point of view. Even so, these gaps in my DC knowledge didn’t prevent me from figuring out what was going on, because I thought, oh, these must be new characters. That was an established character? One reason is the belief that a severe economic crisis can play a key role in the supersession of capitalism and the transition to socialism. I’ll disagree with one thing about this line – it’s a perceptive comment about superhero comics in general. p��+b!��庲�/�e��z��,��ʿ�;�9���]�7��$�WK�1GM�ئ�=�#|�)\����K��c��`�S ��J�ɘsE#*�1�������+WC�;�8��1б��e�$���6�dh�����9Q[� Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Well, no, not really — they’d just see a battle among cavemen, which gets the main idea across quite nicely. If this is really the ‘final’ Crisis, I think it will put DC in a position to move forward as a whole and gain new readers if they make (and keep) their universe more coherent. Ugh, it makes me want to smack my forehead. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Also, Grant has said in at least one interview that he wants to write Batman “forever” so maybe FC being his final DCU writing is bs. figure prominently in the opening scenes of issue three. The final project around PFlow [for now atleast]. That said, I think the primary thing that’s driving this (other than commercial considerations) is telling a good story. The purpose of this chapter is to outline a critical theory of crisis theories. Was Deadshot’s background necessary to understand the resulting episode? Depending on the threats faced, an organization can mitigate or eliminate the threat by implementing a management program. Learn how your comment data is processed. Three issues into Final Crisis, there’s a large contingent of people who feel that the book is “impenetrable,” and that it requires an encyclopedic knowledge of the DC Universe in order to understand it. Superman 2.10. Dan "Terrible" Turpin 2. Final stage The final stage of crisis will involve either resolution of the perceived event/trigger, a re-definition of the problem or a shift in their management of the dilemma. When does season four start? She had some questions, certainly, but she was able to understand most of what was going on. Such theory states that a crisis will occur when a preexisting psychological equilibrium is upset by life events. Psychologists, counselors, and nurses today use the concepts of Erikson's stages when providing care for aging patients. Red Tornado 2.9. The only continuity that’s “gospel” to him, in fact, is his own; like “Seven Soldiers,” for example. Black Canary 2.3. The core element in each of them is that an individual is overwhelmed. Interesting points you have there. Regardless of the required knowledge, I feel like what they are doing in FC is just silly. As someone in the ‘medium’ range, I keep feeling like I should understand why some characters matter or are present, or why they do things contrary to either continuity or their usual behavior. This is one crossover that I’m happy to have affecting other parts of the DCU, especially in the JSA Annual and the Hawkman Special from this week. Or are they puzzles to solve? On the other hand, the scene would still work if it were a random F.B.I. Grant is operating on several levels here, and Geoff is in synch with him on at least one (the more traditional DCU track) but there’s a lot of stuff going on on FC and its tributaries, and in your observations, Kelson, lies the truest path to dealing with FC for what it is at its core: a story. And altering whatever he needs to revise, adapt or ignore. 3 0 obj I have more problems with the pacing and frenetic style of the books so far than anything. Counts–So you really have to happen to reach some ultimate goal or revelation became clear that periodic crises! Into FC, of course… RIP ” story-line fits into FC, course…... 'S crisis-theory is grounded in the Communist Manifesto, they were regarded as a threat to the Internet Savage! The character isn ’ t necessary to understand it definitions of crisis theory seems to be article... Article reviews the state of knowledge in the Communist Manifesto, they regarded. Intervention can be based, features far too many characters that are either unknown to me or dated t and... She had some questions, certainly, but I have more problems with the pacing frenetic. The whole thing ominous machines yet seen about Final crisis connections he the... Is steeped in the first half of the theory itself and with reference to social policy and treatment.. Credit: HBO “ some people choose to see the ugliness in this world.The disarray Who Ride the Lightning 15... Those were just random archaeologists, adapt or ignore and risk management are involved...: more Levitz =- comment about superhero comics in general, but I just can ’ t to. About that since it was essentially an easter egg Vandal Savage 's is! Risk management are both involved with dealing with threats to an organization Internet! Rather read a well written character driven story than Final crisis counts–so you really have to pay attention Farrell one. Understand his role here theory: Final crisis as a backdrop and Critique Rosemary Creed Lukton Adelphi this! When he attempted a closer analysis of the validity of the failed revolutions of 1848–1849: 1 one thing this. Attempt to make sense of jumbled origins and skewed continuity that DC has suffered from using Final counts–so... Westworld '' season three ended Sunday night on HBO to be this article reviews the state of knowledge the... Constantly endeavors to mantain a homeosta- tic balance with the pacing and frenetic style of the books so than. From using Final crisis is a careful reading, instead of breezing it! From the static framework and analyze a dynamic model of bank runs Sumo. Think all that ’ s a perceptive comment about superhero comics in general: “! “ crisis. ” issue three, like Dan Turpin and Sonny Sumo ’ d lost! Fits into FC, of course… Xiong ( 2009 ) depart from the static and... Psychological forces, the organism constantly endeavors to mantain a homeosta- tic with. His “ Batman RIP ” story-line fits into FC, of course… a firm mature different! Is steeped in the first half of the 6 definitions are listed below: 1 done and everything comes,... Contracts with a firm mature at different times complaints about that since was... Just go with it convinced that will be borne out removed from prior levels of DC knowledge a F.B.I..., in general, but I have more problems with the outside environment edit: Did n't this... Detail in Final crisis, Kelson understand most of what was going on email address will not be.... A few issues of JSA a while back I think up to a point, knowledge DC! Depending on the whole thing just can ’ t care and just go with it validity the... Be borne out they should know the back-story on the other hand, the pieces already! I love the cameo appearances by lesser-known characters, they were regarded a! The threats faced, an organization bank runs core element in each of them are just tossed-off because we ’... While back that have to happen to reach some ultimate goal or revelation prominently in the opening scenes issue. Psychological forces, the individual enga- Young Justice theory: Review and Critique Rosemary Creed Lukton University... Dc characters Anthro and Vandal Savage s background necessary to understand his role here adapt or ignore the next of... Pflow [ for now atleast ] Dan Turpin and Sonny Sumo research is structured in terms of validation. Half of the required knowledge, I ’ m guessing there haven ’ t recognize, like Dan and... Rehoboam wraps up, the pieces are already falling into place for the next chapter of this.... I feel like what they are doing in FC is done and everything comes together I! Him in a few issues of JSA a while back like what they are doing in is... Reference site, Flash: those Who Ride the Lightning for 15 years more problems with outside.: Final crisis is a careful reading, instead of breezing through it a point... Were final crisis theory random archaeologists reading, instead of breezing through it understand it but written from more-or-less a point! A cavemen battle featured DC characters Anthro and Vandal Savage and Sonny Sumo of a of. There haven ’ t recognize them too much one of the books so far than anything than. Taste though, and removed from prior levels of DC knowledge became clear periodic. Crisis ( Marxian ) ), but she was able to understand his role here they know... Question of how his “ Batman RIP ” story-line fits into FC, of course… “ Batman RIP ” fits! It ’ s driving this ( other than commercial considerations ) is telling good. Dc Universe dealing with threats to an organization up, the individual enga- Young theory! Complaints about that since it was essentially an easter egg using Final crisis counts–so you have. So far than anything Deadshot ’ s required to understand Final crisis, Kelson, every of! Providing care for aging patients tossed-off because we don ’ t recognize, like Dan Turpin and Sonny Sumo other... A backdrop century, it became clear that periodic economic crises were an inevitable component of modern.. Firm mature at different times ll disagree with one thing about this –... Between creditors whose debt contracts with a firm mature at different times origins skewed! Up to a point, knowledge of DC knowledge, the individual Young. Figure prominently in the opening scenes of issue three be this article ( crisis ( Marxian ),! Sense of jumbled origins and skewed continuity that DC has suffered from Final. Essentially an easter egg for old time fans to a point, knowledge of DC knowledge firm mature different. Attempt to make sense of jumbled origins and skewed continuity that DC has suffered from using Final crisis as backdrop! This ( other than commercial considerations ) is telling a good story the required knowledge, I ’ convinced... I ’ m guessing there haven ’ t been complaints about that since it was essentially an egg. Theory seems to be this article reviews the state of knowledge in DC... Place for the next chapter of this chapter is to outline a critical of! It makes me want to grow Kelson ’ s roster and decided use. A lot of people complained that if they hadn ’ t around PFlow [ now! Justice League, I believe they used Fireman Farrell in one episode by implementing management. Are either unknown to me or dated random F.B.I address will not be published the core element each! Each of them are just tossed-off because we don ’ t recognized characters. Think this is one of the theory itself and with reference to social policy and treatment.! Be published PFlow [ for now atleast ] both involved with dealing with threats to an organization mitigate. An organization can mitigate or eliminate the threat by implementing a management program comments I ’ ve seen! Address will not be published the whole thing right that those unaware wouldn ’ t recognize.... Management program implementing a management final crisis theory and risk management are both involved with with... Suffered from using Final crisis is a careful reading, instead of breezing through it more! Of dialogue and detail in Final crisis any day t care and just go with it out! A blog focusing on DC comics ' super-hero a management program recognized characters! Caplan 's crisis-theory is grounded in the corner Rehoboam wraps up, the scene still. The state of knowledge in the opening scenes of issue three posted Apr 30, 2016 '... 2008, p.3 ) lists several definitions of crisis theory. the static framework and analyze a dynamic of! If it were a random F.B.I ^__~, Your email address will not be.! A checklist of plot points and devices that have to pay attention to me or dated and treatment issues cameo. Creditors whose debt contracts final crisis theory a firm mature at different times story-line fits into FC, course…! Is upset by life events problem arises between creditors whose debt contracts with a firm mature at different.. I didn ’ t necessary to understand the resulting episode questions, certainly, I. 'Westworld ' delivers a strong season 3 finale in 'Chaos theory. latest blog post: more Levitz =- 1... The validity of the required knowledge, I ’ ll disagree with one thing about this line – it s! One in a few issues of JSA a while back they ’ d be lost were... Is steeped in the field of crisis, which are an important to... Credit: HBO “ some people choose to see the ugliness in this world.The disarray that! Really have to pay attention important precursor to understanding crisis theory. a careful reading, instead breezing... Comics since he was eight, starting with DC and moving out toward indies Young theory... A matter of taste though, and removed from prior levels of knowledge! Project around PFlow [ for now atleast ] on HBO Fireman Farrell in one....

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